Globally pollinators are in decline, particularly bees that are important in pollinating many crops (eg most fruit and vegetables).  Research is focussed on ensuring that conventional or bio- pesticides used in IPM  have minimal ‘non-target’ impacts on essential pollinators at field, farm and landscape scales. Future IPM solutions need to include Pollinators (IPPM) so that this vital ecosystem service is maintained in agro-ecosystems.